Dieci di dieci: una breve rassegna sulla letteratura russa contemporanea

 

 

 

Nella sterminata produzione della narrativa russa contemporanea, non è stato facile fare una selezione e scegliere i dieci che personalmente mi sembrano i romanzi più interessanti. A rigor del vero, ci sono due imboscati, due testi di autori vissuti tra ottocento e novecento che ho citato perché sono degli importanti precursori di certi stilemi della letteratura più vicina a noi e importanti autori di snodo tra la letteratura russa più tradizionale e quella contemporanea. Per il momento mi limiterò a parlarvi dei primi 5 (i titoli si riferiscono ai romanzi editi in traduzione italiana) :

  1. MOSKA PETUVSKI’ di  Venedikt Erofeev
  2. MARANAGA di Vladimir Sorokin
  3. PALISSANDREIDE di Saša Sokolov
  4. PROPAGANDA MONUMENTALE di Vladimir Vojinovic
  5. IL BIGLIETTO STELLATO di Vasilij Aksënov

Va fatta una doverosa premessa: l’era postsovietica, da un punto di vista dell’estetica, è stata caratterizzata dall’eclettismo e dall’etichetta di postmodernismo. Tale tendenza si può sintetizzare nella volontà di utilizzare uno stile ibrido tra ironia, grottesco, apocalittico, visionario. Insomma, un impasto che è forse espressione di quel delicato passaggio tra due mondi in contrapposizione, di un passaggio traumatico ed epocale che ha segnato generazioni di artisti e scrittori.

 

Il primo libro, che consiglio vivamente è Moska – Petuškì di Venedikt Erofeev (Quodlibet 2014) un “poema in prosa” originale, visionario.

 Pubblicato per la prima volta in Israele nel 1973, e divulgato inizialmente come samizdat, il romanzo oggi è leggibile in italiano nella traduzione di Paolo Nori. La vicenda si svolge all’interno di un treno che percorre la tratta da Mosca a Petuskiì. Il protagonista Vanicka, in preda di fumi dell’alcool intraprende un percorso torbido, dove l’ubriachezza rappresenta sia una piaga sociale che un escamotage per rappresentare un mondo alla deriva, sopraffatto dall’ideologia del regime.  In questo viaggio fisico e visionario, Petuškì rappresenta l’utopia della citta perfetta, dove si vagheggia la resurrezione, desiderio inconscio e  inconsistente come un sogno di ubriaco.  Lo stile incarna la mistura tra tragico grottesco e comico tipica della corrente postmodernista russa anche se permane quel senso dicotomico tra male e bene che è un retaggio del romanzo tradizionale.

Altro rappresentante del postmodernismo più maturo che ha preso campo soprattutto dagli anni ‘90 in poi è Vladimir Sorokin.

Il romanzo Maranaga, la montagna dei libri (Bompiani 2018)   è un perfetto esempio di distopia allucinatoria in cui passato presente e futuro si fondono in una visione a metà tra apocalittico e rivoluzionario. Il tema ricorda, probabilmente come citazione, il rogo dei libri del romanzo di Bradbury Fahrenheit 451. Ma soltanto nella forma: nella montagna di Maranaga il rogo dei libri serve per alimentare i fuochi delle cene della borghesia depravata. Si scelgono i grandi classici per la pratica del book ’n’ grill, una spietata e oscena orgia di sapori e ricette condite con il fumo dell’’immonda bruciatura di un Tolstoj di un Dostoevskij, di Thomas Mann. Mangiare diventa, come in Rabelais –  ma in una prospettiva più che carnevalesca, iconoclasta-  un atto di assoluta disintegrazione. In questo caso ne fa le spese la cultura, mangiata, digerita, e poi eliminata come necessario scarto. Un’apocalisse culturale e sociale  portata alle estreme conseguenze.

Sulla stessa  lunghezza d’onda ma con differenze significative è il romanzo di Saša Sokolov, Palissandreide (Atmosphere libri 2019) .

letteratura russa

Un’immagine della copertina del libro in perfetto stile sovietico

Sokolov, che rientra appieno nel novero degli iniziatori del postmodernismo, è definitivamente immerso in quella letteratura del caos che Baudrillard definirà del “simulacro”. Un mondo letterario in cui il reale privo di qualsivoglia appiglio morale tra bene e male, scompare. Tutto ciò che è romanzo tradizionale si dissolve: la cronologia è inesistente, calata in un eterno presente che è il tempo di tutti e di nessuno: il Bezvremen’e (il senza tempo). A guidarci dentro questo labirinto in cui si ritrovano veri e propri pezzi del passato e del presente, centrifugati in un ammasso di voci, è l’antieroe Palisandr Dal’berg che cavalca le onde del tempo cambiando spesso identità e personalità: erotomane, ibrido uomo- vegetale, picaro.  Il mondo sovietico diventa così una centrifuga impazzita di elementi culturali che vagano nello spazio del finzionale senza diventare invettiva impegnata né, di fatto, critica al regime.

Altro interessante autore coevo è Vladimir Vojonovič. Credo che il romanzo Propaganda monumentale (Garzanti 2004) sia uno degli esempi più rappresentativi di quell’arte del dissenso tragicomico che si è sviluppata nell’era postsovietica. Più che in altri romanzi, qui è il tema della nostalgia o“Ostalgie”ad esser oggetto di un’ironia dissacrante e al contempo molto lucida. La storia ruota attorno a una donna, segretaria del PCUS Aglaia, comunista di vecchio stampo, che ha adottato una statua di Stalin in casa istituendo un vero e proprio culto privato in cui il leader sovietico grandeggia con tutta la sua monumentalità.

La statua, che era stata abbattuta durante la revisione kruschëviana e la denuncia dei crimini staliniani, aveva cosi trovato posto a casa della donna; da allora Stalin diviene un compagno di vita col quale la donna condivide tutti i momenti della quotidianità, amato, riverito, vagheggiato. Questo romanzo, che focalizza molto lucidamente il processo di destalinizzazione della società sovietica, è interessante perché coglie uno dei nessi centrali della psicologia del regime: quella di creare miti e culti delle immagini dei leader, una sorta di empito retorico collettivo che arrivava a trasformarsi, come in questo caso, in feticismo.

Della stessa “scuola”, il filone satirico che dagli anni ’60 in poi diverrà uno dei principali precursori del postmodernismo, Vasilij Aksënov con il suo Biglietto Stellato  (Mondadori 2009)  conclude la prima parte di questa rassegna sugli autori russi.

 L’autore, annoverabile tra coloro che pubblicarono prevalentemente  sotto forma di samizdat, alterna tratti cupi e grotteschi (come nel romanzo Ozog, L’ustione) ad altri – come nel caso del citato romanzo –  in cui convivono analisi sociale e introspettiva e temi più di evasione. Il  tema è quello del viaggio on the road di un gruppo di adolescenti verso le spiagge dell’Estonia, luogo di fuga ed evasione –  locus amoenus – dove  coltivare i propri sogni e aspirazioni. Il romanzo  incarna quello spirito di rinnovamento che catterizzà l’era di Kruscëv ed è uno spaccato fresco e autentico della generazione dei giovani che vissero quell’era di cambiamento.

 

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