Dostoevskij: l’occhio e il segno

Nel saggio Dostoevskij: l’occhio e il segno, (Rubbettino 2003) Claudia Olivieri, slavista e ricercatrice,  indaga con estrema accuratezza la visualità dostoevskiana e cioè quel ricchissimo rapporto tra l’arte e Dostoevskij che  viene dalla stessa suddiviso in tre ambiti:  Dostoevskij oggetto d’arteDostoevskij soggetto d’arte l’arte soggettivizzata di Dostoevskij.

La novità di questo interessante lavoro sta nell’aver intrecciato queste dimensioni che erano già state affrontate, ma separatamente ad esempio da  Grossmann, D’amelia e da Baršt di cui è stata peraltro traduttrice. La studiosa attinge per il suo studio alla Polnoe sobranje  (opera completa di tutti gli scritti dostoevskiani comprensivi di manoscritti, taccuini, appunti, schizzi e calligrafie,  anticipando la recente pubblicazione di DISEGNI E CALLIGRAFIA DI FEDOR DOSTOEVSKIJ di Konstantin  Baršt per la casa editrice Lemma press.

Ispirata dal concetto di aura benjaminiana , Olivieri parte dall’ analisi di uno dei ritratti più noti dello scrittore F.M Dostoevskij e cioè quello realizzato da  Perov, oggi conservato presso la galleria Tret’jakov, dal nome del  mercante moscovita che commissionò  al pittore il dipinto.

 

Ricorda Anna Snitkina, utlima moglie di Dostoevskij che Perov  fece posare per una settimana intera Dostoevskij prima di cogliere quell’espressione che  ritrae “ l’attimo in cui mio marito crea” . Le mani , insieme al corpo si chiudono in una sorta di cerchio che l’autrice inquadra come metafora della ciroclarità dei temi dostoevskiani che proprio attraverso il rimando a opere pittoriche si delineano come ricorrenti . Altro esempio, il ritratto o autoritratto che si legge in Bobok, racconto che appare nel Diario di uno scrittore  del in cui si legge “ penso che il pittore mi abbia ritratto non per amore della letteratura ma per i due porri simmetrici che ho sulla fronte” […] questo lo chiamano realismo.

Qui, come altrove e specie nel racconto il fanciullo presso Gesù, viene enunciata , apptraverso il riferimento alla propria immagine, la partcolare concezione del realismo  dostoevskiano, per nulla mimetico o strettamente  obbediente ai principi della “scuola naturale” .

Basti pensare alle implicazioni teologico-estetiche che innescano i quadri di Lorrain, di Hans holbein e di Raffaello  nei romanzi I demonî , l’Idiota sul tema della fede, dell’armonia universale, del “secolo d’oro” e dell’utopia del rinnovamento. (per un maggiore approfondimento sul tema  si rimanda al  seguente contributo     /ICONA_VS_QUADRO_IL_DUALISMO_VISUALE_DELLEKPHRASIS_DOSTOEVSKIANA

Un cerchio perfetto  che dimostra quanto Dostoevskij considerasse importante l’immagine artistica e come intrecciasse le idee dei personaggi  di rimandi visuali al punto da affermare  che “pensasse per immagini”:  il pensiero insomma  si compendiava di immagini che l’autore attingeva dalla sua cultura figurativa,  (la pittura russa a lui contemporanea) , da  immagini che rielaborava nei romanzi e nel terzo caso da immagini inventate  come quella di Cristo  che Nastasja Filippovna tratteggia nella sua visione nel romanzo L’Idiota:

Immaginai un quadro. Gli artisti dipingono sempre Cristo secondo le narrazioni evangeliche. Io lo dipingerei altrimenti: Lo dipingerei  altrimenti […]  Lo rappresenterei solo giacchè a voltei discepoli lo lasciavano solo.  Non lascerei con lui che un bambino

Il terzo capitolo, interessantissimo, analizza un altro aspetto altrettanto fondamentale:  tutti i contributi grafici, disegni calligrafie, schizzi che Dostoevskij appuntava in fogli e taccuini e nelle bozze dei romanzi.

Questi segni grafici, o motivi ornamentali (krestocvet) lungi dall’essere degli sfoghi casuali, sono  delle vere e proprie scritture disegnate con le quali “l’autore sopperiva alla limitatezza  della parola non solo  mentre raffinava, nei suoi appunti, la configurazione verbale di un’idea artistica, ma anche nel privato”.  Seguendo la suggestione di Baršt , la Olivieri daga allora con particolare attenzione le calligrafie “goticheggianti “ di Dostoevskij  questi disegni incompleti, che talvolta tratteggiano cattedrali, figure oblunghe, sono da leggere nel senso di una metafora visiva o metonimia, in quanto rappresentano un tratto dell’ideale estetico di Dostoevskij che egli individuava  nella triade  bellezza-bene- verità . Si trovano così finestre ad ogive, archi svettanti,  che rappresentavano un mondo eticamente completo, mentre il caos, la deformità era rappresentata dall’architettura di  San Pietroburgo, spesso richiamata nei romanzi come luogo labirintico, di “straniamento” e perdizione, valga su tutti il cammino di Raskol’nikov tra i vicoli pietroburghesi mentre prende corpo il suo delirio mentale.

È interessante che Dostoevskij proceda però a una “russificazione “ del gotico, rifacendosi alla forma della cipolla delle chiese ortodosse .

Le tabelle conclusive, di cui si riporta una delle più significative, servono a mostrare gli esempi di grafia prima citati: Il documento da parte dei materiali preparatori di Delitto e Castigo

Sono visibili le calligrafie: la scritta Napoleone (l’ideale  di uomo di Raskol’nikov) , scritto con diverse grafie  e con caratteri latini, , “Svidrigajlov”, (uno dei personaggi più  ripugnanti del romanzo),  Sonja, la prostituta che salverà Raskol’nikov .  Il ritratto invece è quello di Napoleone III, appena abbozzato, tutti personaggi che confluiranno nel romanzo.

 

Claudia Olivieri

Claudia Olivieri è ricercatrice (SSD L-LIN/21, Slavistica) presso il Dipartimento di Scienze Umanistiche dell’Università degli Studi di Catania, dove insegna lingua, traduzione e letteratura russa. Si è occupata di letteratura russa dell’800 (Dostoevskij, Somov), dei rapporti cinematografici tra Russia/URSS e Italia (sui quali ha recentemente co-curato con Olga Strada il volume Italia-Russia. Un secolo di cinema, a cura di O. Strada e C. Olivieri, Mosca, ABCDesign, 2020, patrocinato dall’Ambasciata di Italia a Mosca) e delle coproduzioni filmiche italo-sovietiche (in particolare della pellicola Italiani brava gente e del documentario Russia sotto inchiesta). Oggi si interessa di letteratura, cultura, società russa contemporanea: ha approfondito in numerosi saggi la produzione di Vladimir Sorokin, ha trattato il rapporto tra cinema e nostalgia nella monografia Cinema russo da oggi a ieri, Roma, Lithos, 2015Su Dostoevskij ha pubblicato una monografia (C. Olivieri, Dostoevskij l’occhio e il segno, Soveria Mannelli, Rubbettino, 2003) e diversi contributi in italiano e in russo (si vedano ad esempio: C. Olivieri, Dostoevskij v Italii: stoletie kriticheskoj mysli // Dostoevskij i XX vek [a cura di T.A. Kasatkina], Moskva, IMLI RAN, pp. 553-566, 2007, C. Olivieri, Da una casa di morti, EUROPA ORIENTALIS, vol. XXIII/ 2004-1, pp. 251-266, 2005

 

 

 

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