Lucia Sánchez Saornil. Un’anarchica femminista nella Spagna del secolo scorso

 

di Ivana Rinaldi

Un ritratto di Lucia Sanchez Saornil

 

 

“L’archivio parla di “lei” e la fa parlare. Motivato dall’urgenza un primo gesto si impone: ritrovarla come si recupera una specie estinta, una flora sconosciuta, abbozzare il ritratto come per rimediare a una dimenticanza, consegnarne le tracce come si espone una morta”.

E’ con questa citazione di Arlette Farges, Il piacere dell’archivio, che si apre il saggio della giovane studiosa Michela Cimbalo, Ho sempre detto noi. Lucia Sánchez Saornil, femminista e anarchica nella Spagna della Guerra Civile. (Viella, 2020). La storia di questa donna è magnetica e affascinante. Militante anarchica, femminista, sindacalista, fondatrice di Mujeres Libres, attiva durante la guerra civile, poeta, intellettuale autodidatta, cantadora dell’amore libero e omesessuale. Lucia è stata tutto questo. Così vero che in un  viale del Cemeterio General di Valencia, un gruppo di donne si riunisce ogni anno con mazzi di fiori, pugni chiusi e bandiere anarchiche, intorno a una lapide di pietra grigia sulla quale è incisa la frase: “Ma è vero che la speranza è morta?”. Negli ultimi anni l’interesse verso Lucia Sánchez si è fatto sempre più vivo e ha prodotto documentari, video, studi, tra cui quello di Michela Cimbalo, un testo che non si limita a ricostruire la sua vita – nata nel 1895 e morta nel 1970 – ma anche il contesto storico e culturale della Spagna del ‘900 e in particolare la condizione delle donne spagnole che non è molto diversa da quella delle donne italiane.

Lucia nasce a Madrid da una famiglia povera in un edificio basso, altrettanto povero, posizionato in cima a una strada ripida che scende dal paseo di Embajoderes, nella periferia sud. Rimasta presto orfana di madre, si deve far carico del padre e della sorella malata, ma non smette di leggere e studiare, tanto da iniziare a scrivere poesie e pubblicarle su un modesto settimanale, e a poco più di vent’anni diventa l’unica donna dell’ ultraismo, avanguardia aperta al futurismo e al dadaismo. Della sua poesia si è occupata Rosa María Martin Casamitjana attratta, nello studiare il movimento diffuso negli anni Venti in Spagna e in Argentina da Borges, da Lucia, unica tra tanti uomini a far parte dell’ultraismo. La giovane ricorreva a uno pseudonimo maschile, Luciano De San Soar, per firmare le sue poesie. Da dove viene la scelta di firmarsi con un nome maschile? Probabilmente per ottenere credito negli ambienti letterari, ma forse anche perché Lucia era omosessuale.

Lo testimonia sin da giovane il suo abbigliamento, il taglio dei capelli, e in seguito le sue scelte sentimentali: durante il periodo dell’esilio dopo la caduta della Catalogna nel 1939, vive con Ameríca Barros, detta Mery. Lucia e Mery si erano conosciute nel 1937 e non si sono più lasciate per tutta la vita. I parenti di Mery hanno accolto Lucia come una di famiglia, anche se per molto tempo la sua omosessualità viene sottovalutata da chi la studia: perché Lucia sembra avesse sempre mantenuto una certa discrezione sulla sua vita privata. Eppure i suoi versi sono ricchi di esplicito desiderio per il corpo femminile, le piace giocare con l’identità di genere e alludere alla propria sessualità “dissidente”in un’epoca in cui l’amore tra donne era visto come una malattia o una perversione.

Negli archivi esistono tracce deboli di Lucia Sánchez, eppure, tra vecchie riviste, fonti di polizia di più paesi, volantini e produzioni cinematografiche, corrispondenze di esponenti del mondo dell’anarchismo internazionale, spuntano i tracciati delle sue molteplici attività:

“Ogni tassello che si aggiunge alla ricostruzione della sua vita apre scorci su altre storie, su vicende talvolta sconosciute, in cui micro e macro si intrecciano, ponendo nuovi interrogativi e curiosità” (MichelaCimbalo, Lucia Sánchez cit., p. 15).

Lasciata l’attività e gli ambienti letterari alla fine degli anni Venti, si dedica anima e corpo al movimento anarchico militando nella Cnt (Confederación Nacional de Trabajo), il sindacato più potente di Spagna. Tiene lezioni per i lavoratori, scrive per la stampa anarchica tanto da entrare negli anni Trenta nella redazione del quotidiano nazionale del sindacato, anche in questo caso unica nel collettivo tutto maschile. Convinta sostenitrice della necessità di un’azione rivoluzionaria che abbattesse il sistema capitalista, avversa a ogni forma di potere statuale,  riteneva, come già Alexandra Kollontay in Unione Sovietica, che per giungere a una trasformazione radicale della società andava portato avanti un profondo cambiamento del rapporto tra i sessi, bisognava sovvertire lo status quo che teneva relegate le donne in un’intollerabile posizione di subalternità.

Nei suoi scritti Lucia affronta il tema del matrimonio, critica la doppia morale mai cancellata dall’aspirazione libertaria all’amore libero, afferma che la maternità rappresenta una delle tante possibilità di scelta per le donne e non un imperativo legato al destino biologico: una tesi avversata anche negli ambienti anarchici: “Una donna senza figli è un albero senza frutti, un rosaio senza rose”, sosteneva Federica Montseny.

E da queste premesse che nel 1936 nasce Mujeres Libres fondata da Lucia Sánchez, Mercedes Camoposada e Amparo Poch, insieme a una rivista dallo stesso nome. L’organizzazione femminile non è una sezione femminile per garantirsi il voto delle donne introdotto in Spagna nel 1931, ma fortemente autonoma, conduce le sue battaglie per la libertà e pratica un femminismo proletario e di classe, senza staccarsi dai principi dell’anarchismo. L’organizzazione composta di sole donne, arriva a contare più di 20.000 aderenti . Si prefigge sia l’intento di sostenere il fronte repubblicano, sia gli esperimenti rivoluzionari e le battaglie per l’autodeterminazione delle donne, doppiamente sfruttate, come lavoratrici, e in quanto donne. Da segretaria e redattrice della rivista, Lucia conduce le sue battaglie con articoli, reportage dal fronte, programmi radio, fino a diventare nel ’37 segreteria della Società Internazionale Antifascista. Creata dalla CNT per sollecitare all’estero aiuti e solidarietà.

Nel 1939, dopo la vittoria di Franco, anche Lucia deve intraprendere insieme ad Amėrica (Mery) Barroso la via dell’esilio, in Francia dove l’aspetta l’ostilità di un governo che disperde gli esuli in vari campi di concentramento. Nel ’42, dopo la minaccia di essere deportata nella Germania nazista decide di ritornare clandestinamente in Spagna, dove lei e Mery conducono una vita di difficoltà e privazioni rischiando di continuo di essere arrestate in quanto anarchiche, repubblicane e lesbiche.

Accolte nella casa di Valencia della famiglia Barroso si guadagnano da vivere con lavori modesti, confezionando retine per capelli, lavorando per un laboratorio di fotografia, finché Mery non viene assunta al consolato argentino e Lucia si inventa pittrice di ventagli. Sono di questo ultimo periodo le sue poesie più belle che rivelano il desiderio di non arrendersi, differenti da quelle del periodo ultraista: sono in parte raccolte in un volume curato da Rosa María Martín Casamitjana (Pre-Textos, 1996) in cui emergono le paure, i dubbi, la malattia, la sconfitta, mai la negazione di tutto ciò in cui ha creduto.

Sempre ho detto “noi”.

E la parola aveva l’ampiezza del coro

suonava come un organo dai mille registri.

Noi era una moltitudine

di calde mani tese,

pane condiviso

guanciale accogliente;

era un cuore unanime:

l’intescambio di lacrime e sorriso.

Era un campo di spighe

Che il vento inclina in una sol direzione

-ogni lettera una goccia di umanità profonda –

dire “noi” era consumare un vino

Di cordialità fino all’ubriachezza.

 

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